A guide to VHDL for digital system modeling. It aims to show how VHDL modeling fits into a design flow, starting from high-level design and proceeding through detailed design and verification, synthesis, FPGA place and route, and final timing verification.
The use of mathematical methods in the development of software is essential when reliable systems are sought; in particular they are now strongly recommended by the official norms adopted in the production of critical software. Program Verification is the area of computer science that studies mathematical methods for checking that a program conforms to its specification. This text is a self-contained introduction to program verification using logic-based methods, presented in the broader context of formal methods for software engineering. The idea of specifying the behaviour of individual software components by attaching contracts to them is now a widely followed approach in program development, which has given rise notably to the development of a number of behavioural interface specification languages and program verification tools. A foundation for the static verification of programs based on contract-annotated routines is laid out in the book. These can be independently verified, which provides a modular approach to the verification of software. The text assumes only basic knowledge of standard mathematical concepts that should be familiar to any computer science student. It includes a self-contained introduction to propositional logic and first-order reasoning with theories, followed by a study of program verification that combines theoretical and practical aspects - from a program logic (a variant of Hoare logic for programs containing user-provided annotations) to the use of a realistic tool for the verification of C programs (annotated using the ACSL specification language), through the generation of verification conditions and the static verification of runtime errors.
Maude is a language and system based on rewriting logic. In this comprehensive account, you´ll discover how Maude and its formal tool environment can be used in three mutually reinforcing ways: as a declarative programming language, as an executable formal specification language, and as a formal verification system. Examples used throughout the book illustrate key concepts, features, and the many practical uses of Maude.
A decision procedure is an algorithm that, given a decision problem, terminates with a correct yes/no answer. Here, the authors focus on theories that are expressive enough to model real problems, but are still decidable. Specifically, the book concentrates on decision procedures for first-order theories that are commonly used in automated verification and reasoning, theorem-proving, compiler optimization and operations research. The techniques described in the book draw from fields such as graph theory and logic, and are routinely used in industry. The authors introduce the basic terminology of satisfiability modulo theories and then, in separate chapters, study decision procedures for each of the following theories: propositional logic; equalities and uninterpreted functions; linear arithmetic; bit vectors; arrays; pointer logic; and quantified formulas. They also study the problem of deciding combined theories and dedicate a chapter to modern techniques based on an interplay between a SAT solver and a decision procedure for the investigated theory. This textbook has been used to teach undergraduate and graduate courses at ETH Zurich, at the Technion, Haifa, and at the University of Oxford. Each chapter includes a detailed bibliography and exercises. Lecturers´ slides and a C++ library for rapid prototyping of decision procedures are available from the authors´ website.
Automated testing is a cornerstone of agile development. An effective testing strategy will deliver new functionality more aggressively, accelerate user feedback, and improve quality. However, for many developers, creating effective automated tests is a unique and unfamiliar challenge. xUnit Test Patterns is the definitive guide to writing automated tests using xUnit, the most popular unit testing framework in use today. Agile coach and test automation expert Gerard Meszaros describes 68 proven patterns for making tests easier to write, understand, and maintain. He then shows you how to make them more robust and repeatable--and far more cost-effective. Loaded with information, this book feels like three books in one. The first part is a detailed tutorial on test automation that covers everything from test strategy to in-depth test coding. The second part, a catalog of 18 frequently encountered test smells, provides trouble-shooting guidelines to help you determine the root cause of problems and the most applicable patterns. The third part contains detailed descriptions of each pattern, including refactoring instructions illustrated by extensive code samples in multiple programming languages. Topics covered include Writing better tests--and writing them faster The four phases of automated tests: fixture setup, exercising the system under test, result verification, and fixture teardown Improving test coverage by isolating software from its environment using Test Stubs and Mock Objects Designing software for greater testability Using test smells (including code smells, behavior smells, and project smells) to spot problems and know when and how to eliminate them Refactoring tests for greater simplicity, robustness, and execution speed This book will benefit developers, managers, and testers working with any agile or conventional development process, whether doing test-driven development or writing the tests last. While the patterns and smells are especially applicable to all members of the xUnit family, they also apply to next-generation behavior-driven development frameworks such as RSpec and JBehave and to other kinds of test automation tools, including recorded test tools and data-driven test tools such as Fit and FitNesse. Visual Summary of the Pattern Language Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Introduction Refactoring a Test PART I: The Narratives Chapter 1 A Brief Tour Chapter 2 Test Smells Chapter 3 Goals of Test Automation Chapter 4 Philosophy of Test Automation Chapter 5 Principles of Test Automation Chapter 6 Test Automation Strategy Chapter 7 xUnit Basics Chapter 8 Transient Fixture Management Chapter 9 Persistent Fixture Management Chapter 10 Result Verification Chapter 11 Using Test Doubles Chapter 12 Organizing Our Tests Chapter 13 Testing with Databases Chapter 14 A Roadmap to Effective Test Automation PART II: The Test Smells Chapter 15 Code Smells Chapter 16 Behavior Smells Chapter 17 Project Smells PART III: The Patterns Chapter 18 Test Strategy Patterns Chapter 19 xUnit Basics Patterns Chapter 20 Fixture Setup Patterns Chapter 21 Result Verification Patterns Chapter 22 Fixture Teardown Patterns Chapter 23 Test Double Patterns Chapter 24 Test Organization Patterns Chapter 25 Database Patterns Chapter 26 Design-for-Testability Patterns Chapter 27 Value Patterns PART IV: Appendixes Appendix A Test Refactorings Appendix B xUnit Terminology Appendix C xUnit Family Members Appendix D Tools Appendix E Goals and Principles Appendix F Smells, Aliases, and Causes Appendix G Patterns, Aliases, and Variations Glossary References Inde
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Automated Reasoning with Analytic Tableaux and Related Methods, TABLEAUX 2019, held in London, UK, in September 2019, colocated with the 12th International Symposium on Frontiers on Combining Systems, FroCoS 2019. The 25 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions.They present research on all aspects of the mechanization of tableaux-based reasoning and related methods, including theoretical foundations, implementation techniques, systems development and applications. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: tableau calculi, sequent calculi, semantics and combinatorial proofs, non-wellfounded proof systems, automated theorem provers, and logics for program or system verification.
Modern embedded systems require high performance, low cost and low power consumption. Such systems typically consist of a heterogeneous collection of processors, specialized memory subsystems, and partially programmable or fixed-function components. This heterogeneity, coupled with issues such as hardware/software partitioning, mapping, scheduling, etc., leads to a large number of design possibilities, making performance debugging and validation of such systems a difficult problem. Embedded systems are used to control safety critical applications such as flight control, automotive electronics and healthcare monitoring. Clearly, developing reliable software/systems for such applications is of utmost importance. This book describes a host of debugging and verification methods which can help to achieve this goal.
Develop cutting-edge websites and applications using the new features of Laravel 5.8. This book starts with an introduction to Laravel and takes a glance at its newly introduced features. Moving on to setting up your development environment, you will learn how the composer works. In addition to this, you will be introduced to Valet, Homestead, Virtual Box, Vagrant, and Forge in Laravel. With this foundation, you will be ready to get started writing your first Laravel apps. To do so, you will learn to manage routes and controllers and how the Blade template works. Moving on to models, you will work with route model binding and get to know the relationship between models, databases, and Eloquent. Along the way you will define methods on your Eloquent model classes using different types of relationships. Shifting focus to handling user data, you will see how redirect methods work. You will also get to know the inner workings of requests and responses. Continuing the data theme, Beginning Laravel covers basic and grouped artisan commands and how to handle databases with Tinker. By being able to handle data effectively, your applications will come alive for your users, giving them the functionality they need. The last section of the book handles core concepts such as sending emails, alerting users via notifications, and implementing SOLID design principles. You will see how to decouple your application classes by using events and listeners. What You Will Learn Protect your app with authentication and authorization Build a complex relationship between entities using Eloquent models Take advantage of containers and facades Use the mail template Create and configure events Work with Laravel Passport Deploy API authentication Discover new Laravel 5.8 features such as dump server and email verification Who This Book Is For Those new to Laravel and PHP web development or those who have some background in PHP/Laravel who are new to Laravel´s newest release.
Exam 37 Foundation Learning Guide is a Cisco authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCNP preparation. This book teaches readers how to design, configure, maintain, and scale routed networks that are growing in size and complexity. The book covers all routing principles covered in the CCNP Implementing Cisco IP Routing course. As part of the Cisco Press Self-Study series, Exam 37 Foundation Learning Guide provides comprehensive foundation learning for the CCNP ROUTE exam. This revision to the popular Foundation Learning Guide format for Advanced Routing at the Professional level is fully updated to include complete coverage of all routing topics covered in the new Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) course. The proposed book is an intermediate-level text, which assumes that readers have been exposed to beginner-level networking concepts contained in the CCNA (ICND1 and ICND2) certification curriculum. No previous exposure to the CCNP level subject matter is required, so the book provides a great deal of detail on the topics covered. Each chapter opens with a list of objectives to help focus the reader?s study. Configuration exercises at the end of each chapter and a master lab exercise that ties all the topics together in the last chapter help illuminate theoretical concepts. Key terms will be highlighted and defined throughout. Each chapter will conclude with a summary to help review key concepts, as well as review questions to reinforce the reader?s understanding of what was covered. Product Description Now updated for Cisco?s new ROUTE 300-101 exam, Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide is your Cisco® authorized learning tool for CCNP® or CCDP® preparation. Part of the Cisco Press Foundation Learning Series, it teaches you how to plan, configure, maintain, and scale a modern routed network. Focusing on Cisco routers connected in LANs and WANs at medium-to-large network sites, the authors show how to select and implement Cisco IOS services for building scalable, routed networks. They examine basic network and routing protocol principles in detail; introduce both IPv4 and IPv6; fully review EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP; explore enterprise Internet connectivity; cover routing updates and path control; and present today?s router security best practices. Each chapter opens with a list of topics that clearly identifies its focus. Each chapter ends with a summary of key concepts for quick study, as well as review questions to assess and reinforce your understanding. Throughout, configuration and verification output examples illustrate critical issues in network operation and troubleshooting. This guide is ideal for all certification candidates who want to master all the topics covered on the ROUTE 300-101 exam. Serves as the official book for the newest version of the Cisco Networking Academy CCNP ROUTE course This is a Cisco authorized, self-paced learning tool for CCNP preparation. This book teaches readers how to design, configure, maintain, and scale routed networks that are growing in size and complexity. The book covers all routing principles covered in the CCNP Implementing Cisco IP Routing course. This intermediate-level text assumes that readers have been exposed to beginner-level networking concepts contained in the CCNA (ICND1 and ICND2) certification curriculum. No previous exposure to the CCNP level subject matter is required, so the book provides a great deal of detail on the topics covered.