Serious Cryptography is the much anticipated review of modern cryptography by cryptographer JP Aumasson. This is a book for readers who want to understand how cryptography works in today´s world. The book is suitable for a wide audience, yet is filled with mathematical concepts and meaty discussions of how the various cryptographic mechanisms work. Chapters cover the notion of secure encryption, randomness, block ciphers and ciphers, hash functions and message authentication codes, public-key crypto including RSA, Diffie-Hellman, and elliptic curves, as well as TLS and post-quantum cryptography. Numerous code examples and real use cases throughout will help practitioners to understand the core concepts behind modern cryptography, as well as how to choose the best algorithm or protocol and ask the right questions of vendors. Aumasson discusses core concepts like computational security and forward secrecy, as well as strengths and limitations of cryptographic functionalities related to
Recent years have seen a dramatic growth of natural language text data, including web pages, news articles, scientific literature, emails, enterprise documents, and social media such as blog articles, forum posts, product reviews, and tweets. This has led to an increasing demand for powerful software tools to help people analyze and manage vast amounts of text data effectively and efficiently. Unlike data generated by a computer system or sensors, text data are usually generated directly by humans, and are accompanied by semantically rich content. As such, text data are especially valuable for discovering knowledge about human opinions and preferences, in addition to many other kinds of knowledge that we encode in text. In contrast to structured data, which conform to well-defined schemas (thus are relatively easy for computers to handle), text has less explicit structure, requiring computer processing toward understanding of the content encoded in text. The current technology of natural language processing has not yet reached a point to enable a computer to precisely understand natural language text, but a wide range of statistical and heuristic approaches to analysis and management of text data have been developed over the past few decades. They are usually very robust and can be applied to analyze and manage text data in any natural language, and about any topic. This book provides a systematic introduction to all these approaches, with an emphasis on covering the most useful knowledge and skills required to build a variety of practically useful text information systems. The focus is on text mining applications that can help users analyze patterns in text data to extract and reveal useful knowledge. Information retrieval systems, including search engines and recommender systems, are also covered as supporting technology for text mining applications. The book covers the major concepts, techniques, and ideas in text data mining and information retrieval from a practical viewpoint, and includes many hands-on exercises designed with a companion software toolkit (i.e., MeTA) to help readers learn how to apply techniques of text mining and information retrieval to real-world text data and how to experiment with and improve some of the algorithms for interesting application tasks. The book can be used as a textbook for a computer science undergraduate course or a reference book for practitioners working on relevant problems in analyzing and managing text data.
The 12th International Symposium on Graph Drawing (GD 2004)was held d- ing September 29 October 2, 2004, at City College, CUNY, in the heart of Harlem, New York City. GD 2004 attracted 94 participants from 19 countries. In response to the call for papers, the program committee received 86 re- larsubmissionsdescribingoriginalresearchand/orsystemdemonstrations.Each submissionwasreviewedbyatleastthreeprogramcommitteemembersandc- ments were returned to the authors. Following extensive e-mail discussions, the program committee accepted 39 long papers (11 pages each in the proceedings) and 12 short papers (6 pages each). In addition, 4 posters were displayed and discussed in the conference exhibition room (2 pages each in the proceedings). Theprogramcommittee ofGD 2004invitedtwo distinguishedlecturers.P- fessorPaulSeymourfromPrincetonUniversitypresenteda newcharacterization ofclaw-freegraphs(jointworkwithMariaChudnovsky).ProfessorErikDemaine from MIT reported on his joint work with Fedor Fomin, MohammadTaghi - jiaghayi and Dimitrios Thilikos, concerning fast (often subexponential) ?x- parameter algorithms and polynomial approximation schemes for broad classes of NP-hard problems in topological graph theory. A survey of the subject by Professors Demaine and Hajiaghayi is included in this volume. As usual, the annual graph drawing contest was held during the conference. This time the contest had two distinct tracks: the graph drawing challenge and the freestyle contest. A report is included in the proceedings.
This invaluable textbook presents a comprehensive introduction to modern competitive programming. The text highlights how competitive programming has proven to be an excellent way to learn algorithms, by encouraging the design of algorithms that actually work, stimulating the improvement of programming and debugging skills, and reinforcing the type of thinking required to solve problems in a competitive setting. The book contains many ´´folklore´´ algorithm design tricks that are known by experienced competitive programmers, yet which have previously only been formally discussed in online forums and blog posts. Topics and features: reviews the features of the C++ programming language, and describes how to create efficient algorithms that can quickly process large data sets; discusses sorting algorithms and binary search, and examines a selection of data structures of the C++ standard library; introduces the algorithm design technique of dynamic programming, and investigates elementary graph algorithms; covers such advanced algorithm design topics as bit-parallelism and amortized analysis, and presents a focus on efficiently processing array range queries; surveys specialized algorithms for trees, and discusses the mathematical topics that are relevant in competitive programming; examines advanced graph techniques, geometric algorithms, and string techniques; describes a selection of more advanced topics, including square root algorithms and dynamic programming optimization. This easy-to-follow guide is an ideal reference for all students wishing to learn algorithms, and practice for programming contests. Knowledge of the basics of programming is assumed, but previous background in algorithm design or programming contests is not necessary. Due to the broad range of topics covered at various levels of difficulty, this book is suitable for both beginners and more experienced readers.
In The Functional Art, instructor Alberto Cairo explains how information graphics and visualizations are cognitive tools that extend our perception and how we can use them to see beyond lists of numbers, variables, and phenomena to identify patterns and trends that would be invisible otherwise. The book also includes a DVD-ROM containing 90+ minutes of video tutorials that expand on the concepts explained in the book as well as exercises that viewers can use to put their newly found skills to the test. Product Description Unlike any time before in our lives, we have access to vast amounts of free information. With the right tools, we can start to make sense of all this data to see patterns and trends that would otherwise be invisible to us. By transforming numbers into graphical shapes, we allow readers to understand the stories those numbers hide. In this practical introduction to understanding and using information graphics, you´ll learn how to use data visualizations as tools to see beyond lists of numbers and variables and achieve new insights into the complex world around us. Regardless of the kind of data you´re working with-business, science, politics, sports, or even your own personal finances-this book will show you how to use statistical charts, maps, and explanation diagrams to spot the stories in the data and learn new things from it. You´ll also get to peek into the creative process of some of the world´s most talented designers and visual journalists, including Condé Nast Traveler´s John Grimwade , National Geographic Magazine´s Fernando Baptista, The New York Times´ Steve Duenes, The Washington Post´s Hannah Fairfield, Hans Rosling of the Gapminder Foundation, Stanford´s Geoff McGhee, and European superstars Moritz Stefaner, Jan Willem Tulp, Stefanie Posavec, and Gregor Aisch. The book also includes a DVD-ROM containing over 90 minutes of video lessons that expand on core concepts explained within the book and includes even more inspirational information graphics from the world´s leading designers. The first book to offer a broad, hands-on introduction to information graphics and visualization, The Functional Art reveals: . Why data visualization should be thought of as ´´functional art´´ rather than fine art . How to use color, type, and other graphic tools to make your information graphics more effective, not just better looking . The science of how our brains perceive and remember information . Best practices for creating interactive information graphics . A comprehensive look at the creative process behind successful information graphics . An extensive gallery of inspirational work from the world´s top designers and visual artists On the DVD-ROM: In this introductory video course on information graphics, Alberto Cairo goes into greater detail with even more visual examples of how to create effective information graphics that function as practical tools for aiding perception. You´ll learn how to: incorporate basic design principles in your visualizations, create simple interfaces for interactive graphics, and choose the appropriate type of graphic forms for your data. Cairo also deconstructs successful information graphics from The New York Times and National Geographic magazine with sketches and images not shown in the book. Introduction - What Infographics and Visualizations Are PART 1 - Foundations Chapter 1 - Why Visualization - From Data to Wisdom Chapter 2 - Form and Function - Visualization as a Technology Chapter 3 - The Beauty Paradox - Art and Communication Efficacy Chapter 4 - Exposition, Exploration, And the Complexity Challenge PART 2 - History Chapter 5 - Here Be Dragons - On the Origins of Maps Chapter 6 - Lights of Reason - the Dawn of Scientific Illustration Chapter 7 - A Scottish Engineer And a Century of Revolutions - the History of Charts PART 3 - Cognition Chapter 8 - The Eye and the Visual Brain Chapter 9 - Non-sensed Perception Chapter 10 - Images in the Brain PART 4 - Practice Chapter 11 - The Creation Process in Infographics and Visualization Chapter 12 - Interactive Graphics and Visualization APPENDIX - Projects from leading practitioners in the field, explained in detail In The Functional Art, instructor Alberto Cairo explains how information graphics and visualizations are cognitive tools that extend our perception and how we can use them to see beyond lists of numbers, variables, and phenomena to identify patterns and trends that would be invisible otherwise. The book
Computer Software is an integral part of modern society. Companies rely on applications to manage client information, payment data, and inventory tracking. Consumers use software for a variety of different reasons as well--to manage their daily lives, to communicate with friends and family, and to browse resources made available on the internet, to name a few. With such a heavy reliance on software in our society, questions surrounding the security of the pieces of software performing these various tasks begin to arise. Is the software we are using really secure? How can we verify that it is? And what are the implications of a particular application being compromised? These are some of the questions that this book attempts to address. This book sheds light on the theory and practice of code auditing--how to rip apart an application and discover security vulnerabilities, whether they be simple or subtle, and how to assess the danger that each vulnerability represents. Product Description ´´There are a number of secure programming books on the market, but none that go as deep as this one. The depth and detail exceeds all books that I know about by an order of magnitude.´´ -Halvar Flake, CEO and head of research, SABRE Security GmbH The Definitive Insider´s Guide to Auditing Software Security This is one of the most detailed, sophisticated, and useful guides to software security auditing ever written. The authors are leading security consultants and researchers who have personally uncovered vulnerabilities in applications ranging from sendmail to Microsoft Exchange, Check Point VPN to Internet Explorer. Drawing on their extraordinary experience, they introduce a start-to-finish methodology for ´´ripping apart´´ applications to reveal even the most subtle and well-hidden security flaws. The Art of Software Security Assessment covers the full spectrum of software vulnerabilities in both UNIX/Linux and Windows environments. It demonstrates how to audit security in applications of all sizes and functions, including network and Web software. Moreover, it teaches using extensive examples of real code drawn from past flaws in many of the industry´s highest-profile applications . Coverage includes . Code auditing: theory, practice, proven methodologies, and secrets of the trade . Bridging the gap between secure software design and post-implementation review . Performing architectural assessment: design review, threat modeling, and operational review . Identifying vulnerabilities related to memory management, data types, and malformed data . UNIX/Linux assessment: privileges, files, and processes . Windows-specific issues, including objects and the filesystem . Auditing interprocess communication, synchronization, and state . Evaluating network software: IP stacks, firewalls, and common application protocols . Auditing Web applications and technologies This book is an unprecedented resource for everyone who must deliver secure software or assure the safety of existing software: consultants, security specialists, developers, QA staff, testers, and administrators alike. Contents ABOUT THE AUTHORS xv PREFACE xvii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxi I Introduction to Software Security Assessment 1 SOFTWARE VULNERABILITY FUNDAMENTALS 3 2 DESIGN REVIEW 25 3 OPERATIONAL REVIEW 67 4 APPLICATION REVIEW PROCESS 91 II Software Vulnerabilities 5 MEMORY CORRUPTION 167 6 C LANGUAGE ISSUES 203 7 PROGRAM BUILDING BLOCKS 297 8 STRINGS ANDMETACHARACTERS 387 9 UNIX I: PRIVILEGES AND FILES 459 10 UNIX II: PROCESSES 559 11 WINDOWS I: OBJECTS AND THE FILE SYSTEM 625 12 WINDOWS II: INTERPROCESS COMMUNICATION 685 13 SYNCHRONIZATION AND STATE 755 III Software Vulnerabilities in Practice 14 NETWORK PROTOCOLS 829 15 FIREWALLS 891 16 NETWORK APPLICATION PROTOCOLS 921 17 WEB APPLICATIONS 1007 18 WEB TECHNOLOGIES 1083 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1125 INDEX 1129 Backcover ´´There are a number of secure programming books on the market, but none that go as deep as this one. The depth and detail exceeds all books that I know about by an order of magnitude.´´ -Halvar Flake, CEO and head of research, SABRE Security GmbH The Definitive Insider´s Guide to Auditing Software Security This is one of the most detailed, sophisticated, and useful guides to software security auditing ever written. The authors are leading security consultants and researchers who have personally uncovered vulnerabilities in applications ranging from sendmail to Microsoft Exchange, Check Point VPN to Internet Explorer.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the second International Workshop on Interoperability and Open-Source Solutions for the Internet of Things, InterOSS-IoT 2016, held in Stuttgart, Germany, November 7, 2016. The 11 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 17 submissions during two rounds of reviewing. They are organized in topical sections on semantic interoperability, interoperabile architectures and platforms, business models and security, platform performance and applications.
Turing´s famous 1936 paper introduced a formal definition of a computing machine, a Turing machine. This model led to both the development of actual computers and to computability theory, the study of what machines can and cannot compute. This book presents classical computability theory from Turing and Post to current results and methods, and their use in studying the information content of algebraic structures, models, and their relation to Peano arithmetic. The author presents the subject as an art to be practiced, and an art in the aesthetic sense of inherent beauty which all mathematicians recognize in their subject. Part I gives a thorough development of the foundations of computability, from the definition of Turing machines up to finite injury priority arguments. Key topics include relative computability, and computably enumerable sets, those which can be effectively listed but not necessarily effectively decided, such as the theorems of Peano arithmetic. Part II includes the study of computably open and closed sets of reals and basis and nonbasis theorems for effectively closed sets. Part III covers minimal Turing degrees. Part IV is an introduction to games and their use in proving theorems. Finally, Part V offers a short history of computability theory. The author has honed the content over decades according to feedback from students, lecturers, and researchers around the world. Most chapters include exercises, and the material is carefully structured according to importance and difficulty. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and mathematics and researchers engaged with computability and mathematical logic.
This book shows how to do systems thinking and translate that thinking into praxis (theory informed practical action). It will be welcomed by those managing or governing in situations of complexity and uncertainty across all domains of professional and personal life. The development of capabilities to think and act systemically is an urgent priority. Humans are now a force of nature, affecting whole-earth dynamics including the earth´s climate - we live in an Anthropocene or Capitalocene and are confronted by the emergence of a ´post-truth´, ´big data´ world. What we have developed, organisationally and institutionally, seems very fragile. An imperative exists to recover whatever systemic sensibilities we still retain, to foster systems literacy and to invest in systems thinking in practice capability. This will be needed in future at personal, group, community, regional, national and international levels, all at the same time. Systems Practice: How to Act is structured into four parts. Part I introduces the societal need to invest in systems thinking in practice, in contexts of uncertainty and complexity epitomised by the challenges of responding to human-induced climate change. Part II unpacks what is involved in systems practice by means of a juggler isophor; examining situations where systems thinking offers useful understanding and opportunities for change. Part III identifies the main factors that constrain the uptake of systems practice and makes the case for innovation in practice by means of systemic inquiry, systemic action research and systemic intervention. The book concludes with Part IV, which critically examines how systems practice is, or might be, utilised at different levels from the personal to the societal.