This tutorial manual provides a comprehensive introduction to R, a software package for statistical computing and graphics. R supports a wide range of statistical techniques and is easily extensible via user-defined functions. One of R´s strengths is the ease with which publication-quality plots can be produced in a wide variety of formats. This is a printed edition of the tutorial documentation from the R distribution, with additional examples, notes and corrections. It is based on R version 2.9.0, released April 2009. R is free software, distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). It can be used with GNU/Linux, Unix and Microsoft Windows. All the money raised from the sale of this book supports the development of free software and documentation.
The goal of machine learning is to program computers to use example data or past experience to solve a given problem. Many successful applications of machine learning exist already, including systems that analyze past sales data to predict customer behavior, optimize robot behavior so that a task can be completed using minimum resources, and extract knowledge from bioinformatics data. Introduction to Machine Learning is a comprehensive textbook on the subject
Automated and semi-automated manipulation of so-called labelled transition systems has become an important means in discovering flaws in software and hardware systems. Process algebra has been developed to express such labelled transition systems algebraically, which enhances the ways of manipulation by means of equational logic and term rewriting.The theory of process algebra has developed rapidly over the last twenty years, and verification tools have been developed on the basis of process algebra, often in cooperation with techniques related to model checking. This textbook gives a thorough introduction into the basics of process algebra and its applications.
An unimaginably vast amount of data is now generated by our on-line lives and businesses, At the same time, our ability to store, manage, analyse, and exploit this data is becoming ever more sophisticated. This Very Short Introduction maps out the technology, and also the range of possibilities, challenges, and ethical questions it raises.
Despite growing interest in the mathematical analysis of algorithms, basic information on methods and models has rarely been directly accessible to practitioners, researchers, or students. This book organizes and presents that knowledge, fully introducing today´s primary techniques for mathematically analyzing algorithms. Robert Sedgewick and the late Philippe Flajolet have drawn from both classical mathematical and computer science material, integrating discrete mathematics, elementary real analysis, combinatorics, algorithms, and data structures. They focus on ´´average-case´´ or ´´probabilistic´´ analysis, while also covering tools for ´´worst case´´ or ´´complexity´´ analysis. Improvements in this edition include: * Upgraded figures and code * Newer style for presenting much of the text´s math * An all-new chapter on trees This book´s thorough, self-contained coverage will help readers appreciate the field´s challenges, prepare them for advanced results covered in Donald Knuth´s books, and provide the background they need to keep abreast of new research. Coverage includes: recurrences, generating functions, asymptotics, trees, strings, maps, sorting, tree search, string search, and hashing algorithms. Ideal for junior- or senior-level courses on mathematical analysis of algorithms, this book will also be useful in courses on discrete mathematics for computer scientists, and in introducing mathematics students to computer science principles related to algorithms and data structures. Product Description Despite growing interest, basic information on methods and models for mathematically analyzing algorithms has rarely been directly accessible to practitioners, researchers, or students. An Introduction to the Analysis of Algorithms, Second Edition, organizes and presents that knowledge, fully introducing primary techniques and results in the field. Robert Sedgewick and the late Philippe Flajolet have drawn from both classical mathematics and computer science, integrating discrete mathematics, elementary real analysis, combinatorics, algorithms, and data structures. They emphasize the mathematics needed to support scientific studies that can serve as the basis for predicting algorithm performance and for comparing different algorithms on the basis of performance. Techniques covered in the first half of the book include recurrences, generating functions, asymptotics, and analytic combinatorics. Structures studied in the second half of the book include permutations, trees, strings, tries, and mappings. Numerous examples are included throughout to illustrate applications to the analysis of algorithms that are playing a critical role in the evolution of our modern computational infrastructure. Improvements and additions in this new edition include Upgraded figures and code Despite growing interest, basic information on methods and models for mathematically analyzing algorithms has rarely been directly accessible to practitioners, researchers, or students. An Introduction to the Analysis of Algorithms, Second Edition, organizes and presents that knowledge, fully introducing primary techniques and results in the field. Authors Robert Sedgewick and the late Philippe Flajolet emphasize the mathematics needed to support scientific studies that can serve as the basis for predicting algorithm performance and for comparing different algorithms on the basis of performance. Improvements and additions in this new edition include upgraded figures and code, an all-new chapter introducing analytic combinatorics, and simplified derivations via analytic combinatorics throughout. The book´s thorough, self-contained coverage will help readers appreciate the field´s challenges and prepare them for advanced study.
´´The book is outstanding and admirable in many respects. ... is necessary reading for all kinds of readers from undergraduate students to top authorities in the field.´´ Journal of Symbolic Logic Written by two experts in the field, this is the only comprehensive and unified treatment of the central ideas and applications of Kolmogorov complexity. The book presents a thorough treatment of the subject with a wide range of illustrative applications. Such applications include the randomness of finite objects or infinite sequences, Martin-Loef tests for randomness, information theory, computational learning theory, the complexity of algorithms, and the thermodynamics of computing. It will be ideal for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers in computer science, mathematics, cognitive sciences, philosophy, artificial intelligence, statistics, and physics. The book is self-contained in that it contains the basic requirements from mathematics and computer science. Included are also numerous problem sets, comments, source references, and hints to solutions of problems. New topics in this edition include Omega numbers, Kolmogorov-Loveland randomness, universal learning, communication complexity, Kolmogorov´s random graphs, time-limited universal distribution, Shannon information and others.
Comprehensive survey of artificial intelligence -- the study of how computers can be made to act intelligently. Includes introductory and advanced material. Extensive notes updating the main text. 132 illustrations.
This concise, accessible text provides a thorough introduction to quantum computing - an exciting emergent field at the interface of the computer, engineering, mathematical and physical sciences. Aimed at advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in these disciplines, the text is technically detailed and is clearly illustrated throughout with diagrams and exercises. Some prior knowledge of linear algebra is assumed, including vector spaces and inner products. However, prior familiarity with topics such as tensor products and spectral decomposition is not required, as the necessary material is reviewed in the text.