After explaining the need for causal models and discussing some of the principles underlying causal inference, the book teaches readers how to use causal models: how to compute intervention distributions, how to infer causal models from observational and interventional data, and how causal ideas could be exploited for classical machine learning problems. All of these topics are discussed first in terms of two variables and then in the more general multivariate case. The bivariate case turns out to be a particularly hard problem for causal learning because there are no conditional independences as used by classical methods for solving multivariate cases. The authors consider analyzing statistical asymmetries between cause and effect to be highly instructive, and they report on their decade of intensive research into this problem.
Information theory and inference, taught together in this exciting textbook, lie at the heart of many important areas of modern technology - communication, signal processing, data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, computational neuroscience, bioinformatics and cryptography. The book introduces theory in tandem with applications. Information theory is taught alongside practical communication systems such as arithmetic coding for data compression and sparse-graph codes for error-correction. Inference techniques, including message-passing algorithms, Monte Carlo methods and variational approximations, are developed alongside applications to clustering, convolutional codes, independent component analysis, and neural networks. Uniquely, the book covers state-of-the-art error-correcting codes, including low-density-parity-check codes, turbo codes, and digital fountain codes - the twenty-first-century standards for satellite communications, disk drives, and data broadcast. Richly illustrated, filled with worked examples and over 400 exercises, some with detailed solutions, the book is ideal for self-learning, and for undergraduate or graduate courses. It also provides an unparalleled entry point for professionals in areas as diverse as computational biology, financial engineering and machine learning.
Written by leading researchers, this complete introduction brings together all the theory and tools needed for building robust machine learning in adversarial environments. Discover how machine learning systems can adapt when an adversary actively poisons data to manipulate statistical inference, learn the latest practical techniques for investigating system security and performing robust data analysis, and gain insight into new approaches for designing effective countermeasures against the latest wave of cyber-attacks. Privacy-preserving mechanisms and the near-optimal evasion of classifiers are discussed in detail, and in-depth case studies on email spam and network security highlight successful attacks on traditional machine learning algorithms. Providing a thorough overview of the current state of the art in the field, and possible future directions, this groundbreaking work is essential reading for researchers, practitioners and students in computer security and machine learning, and those wanting to learn about the next stage of the cybersecurity arms race.
This is the first textbook on pattern recognition to present the Bayesian viewpoint. It presents approximate inference algorithms that permit fast approximate answers in situations where exact answers are not feasible, and it uses graphical models to describe probability distributions. The dramatic growth in practical applications for machine learning over the last ten years has been accompanied by many important developments in the underlying algorithms and techniques. For example, Bayesian methods have grown from a specialist niche to become mainstream, while graphical models have emerged as a general framework for describing and applying probabilistic techniques. The practical applicability of Bayesian methods has been greatly enhanced by the development of a range of approximate inference algorithms such as variational Bayes and expectation propagation, while new models based on kernels have had a significant impact on both algorithms and applications.This completely new textbook reflects these recent developments while providing a comprehensive introduction to the fields of pattern recognition and machine learning. It is aimed at advanced undergraduates or first-year PhD students, as well as researchers and practitioners. No previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning concepts is assumed. Familiarity with multivariate calculus and basic linear algebra isrequired, and some experience in the use of probabilities would be helpful though not essential as the book includes a self-contained introduction to basic probability theory.The book is suitable for courses on machine learning, statistics, computer science, signal processing, computer vision, data mining, and bioinformatics. Extensive support is provided for course instructors, including more than 400 exercises, graded according to difficulty. Example solutions for a subset of the exercises are available from the book web site, while solutions for the remainder can be obtained by instructors from the publisher. The book is supported by a great deal of additional material, and the reader is encouraged to visit the book web site for the latest information.Coming soon: For students, worked solutions to a subset of exercises available on a public web site (for exercises marked ´´www´´ in the text) For instructors, worked solutions to remaining exercises from the Springer web site Lecture slides to accompany each chapter Data sets available for download
If you know how to program, you have the skills to turn data into knowledge, using tools of probability and statistics. This concise introduction shows you how to perform statistical analysis computationally, rather than mathematically, with programs written in Python. By working with a single case study throughout this thoroughly revised book, you?ll learn the entire process of exploratory data analysis?from collecting data and generating statistics to identifying patterns and testing hypotheses. You?ll explore distributions, rules of probability, visualization, and many other tools and concepts. New chapters on regression, time series analysis, survival analysis, and analytic methods will enrich your discoveries. * Develop an understanding of probability and statistics by writing and testing code * Run experiments to test statistical behavior, such as generating samples from several distributions * Use simulations to understand concepts that are hard to grasp mathematically * Import data from most sources with Python, rather than rely on data that?s cleaned and formatted for statistics tools * Use statistical inference to answer questions about real-world data
Gain a gentle introduction to the world of Artificial Intelligence (AI) using the Raspberry Pi as the computing platform. Most of the major AI topics will be explored, including expert systems, machine learning both shallow and deep, fuzzy logic control, and more! AI in action will be demonstrated using the Python language on the Raspberry Pi. The Prolog language will also be introduced and used to demonstrate fundamental AI concepts. In addition, the Wolfram language will be used as part of the deep machine learning demonstrations. A series of projects will walk you through how to implement AI concepts with the Raspberry Pi. Minimal expense is needed for the projects as only a few sensors and actuators will be required. Beginners and hobbyists can jump right in to creating AI projects with the Raspberry PI using this book. What You´ll Learn What AI is and-as importantly-what it is not Inference and expert systems Machine learning both shallow and deep Fuzzy logic and how to apply to an actual control system When AI might be appropriate to include in a system Constraints and limitations of the Raspberry Pi AI implementation Who This Book Is For Hobbyists, makers, engineers involved in designing autonomous systems and wanting to gain an education in fundamental AI concepts, and non-technical readers who want to understand what AI is and how it might affect their lives.
This accessible text/reference provides a general introduction to probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) from an engineering perspective. The book covers the fundamentals for each of the main classes of PGMs, including representation, inference and learning principles, and reviews real-world applications for each type of model. These applications are drawn from a broad range of disciplines, highlighting the many uses of Bayesian classifiers, hidden Markov models, Bayesian networks, dynamic and temporal Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, influence diagrams, and Markov decision processes. Features: presents a unified framework encompassing all of the main classes of PGMs; describes the practical application of the different techniques; examines the latest developments in the field, covering multidimensional Bayesian classifiers, relational graphical models and causal models; provides exercises, suggestions for further reading, and ideas for research or programming projects at the end of each chapter.
This tutorial text gives a unifying perspective on machine learning by covering both probabilistic and deterministic approaches -which are based on optimization techniques - together with the Bayesian inference approach, whose essence lies in the use of a hierarchy of probabilistic models. The book presents the major machine learning methods as they have been developed in different disciplines, such as statistics, statistical and adaptive signal processing and computer science. Focusing on the physical reasoning behind the mathematics, all the various methods and techniques are explained in depth, supported by examples and problems, giving an invaluable resource to the student and researcher for understanding and applying machine learning concepts. The book builds carefully from the basic classical methods to the most recent trends, with chapters written to be as self-contained as possible, making the text suitable for different courses: pattern recognition, statistical/adaptive signal processing, statistical/Bayesian learning, as well as short courses on sparse modeling, deep learning, and probabilistic graphical models. All major classical techniques: Mean/Least-Squares regression and filtering, Kalman filtering, stochastic approximation and online learning, Bayesian classification, decision trees, logistic regression and boosting methods. The latest trends: Sparsity, convex analysis and optimization, online distributed algorithms, learning in RKH spaces, Bayesian inference, graphical and hidden Markov models, particle filtering, deep learning, dictionary learning and latent variables modeling. Case studies - protein folding prediction, optical character recognition, text authorship identification, fMRI data analysis, change point detection, hyperspectral image unmixing, target localization, channel equalization and echo cancellation, show how the theory can be applied. MATLAB code for all the main algorithms are available on an accompanying website, enabling the reader to experiment with the code.