Graph algorithms are easy to visualize and indeed there already exists a variety of packages to animate the dynamics when solving problems from graph theory. Still it can be difficult to understand the ideas behind the algorithm from the dynamic display alone. CATBox consists of a software system for animating graph algorithms and a course book which we developed simultaneously. The software system presents both the algorithm and the graph and puts the user always in control of the actual code that is executed. In the course book, intended for readers at advanced undergraduate or graduate level, computer exercises and examples replace the usual static pictures of algorithm dynamics. For this volume we have chosen solely algorithms for classical problems from combinatorial optimization, such as minimum spanning trees, shortest paths, maximum flows, minimum cost flows, weighted and unweighted matchings both for bipartite and non-bipartite graphs. Find more information at http://schliep.org/CATBox/.
The Truthful Art is an introduction to quantitative thinking and statistical and cartographical representation written specifically for journalists and designers. A follow-up to The Functional Art, it goes into the specifics of how to create functional charts, maps, and graphs.
This book focuses on novel and state-of-the-art scientific work in the area of detection and prediction techniques using information found generally in graphs and particularly in social networks. Community detection techniques are presented in diverse contexts and for different applications while prediction methods for structured and unstructured data are applied to a variety of fields such as financial systems, security forums, and social networks. The rest of the book focuses on graph-based techniques for data analysis such as graph clustering and edge sampling. The research presented in this volume was selected based on solid reviews from the IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks, Analysis, and Mining (ASONAM ´17). Chapters were then improved and extended substantially, and the final versions were rigorously reviewed and revised to meet the series standards. This book will appeal to practitioners, researchers and students in the field.
SAS Programming and Data Visualization Techniques: A Power User´s Guide brings together a wealth of ideas about strategic and tactical solutions to everyday situations experienced when transferring, extracting, processing, analyzing, and reporting the valuable data you have at your fingertips. Best, you can achieve most of the solutions using the SAS components you already license, meaning that this book´s insights can keep you from throwing money at problems needlessly. Author Philip R. Holland advises a broad range of clients throughout Europe and the United States as an independent consultant and founder of Holland Numerics Ltd, a SAS technical consultancy. In this book he explains techniques-through code samples and example-that will enable you to increase your knowledge of all aspects of SAS programming, improve your coding productivity, and interface SAS with other programs. He also provides an expert´s overview of Graph Templates, which was recently moved into Base SAS. You will learn to create attractive, standardized, reusable, and platform-independent graphs-both statistical and non-statistical-to help you and your business users explore, visualize, and capitalize on your company´s data. In addition, you will find many examples and cases pertaining to healthcare, finance, retail, and other industries. Among other things, SAS Programming and Data Visualization Techniques will show you how to: Write efficient and reus able SAS code Combine look-up data sets with larger data sets effectively Run R and Perl from SAS Run SAS programs from SAS Studio and Enterprise Guide Output data into insightful, valuable charts and graphs SAS Programming and Data Visualization Techniques prepares you to make better use of your existing SAS components by learning to use the newest features, improve your coding efficiency, help you develop applications that are easier to maintain, and make data analysis easier. In other words, it will save you time, money, and effort-and make you a more valuable member of the development team. What You´ll Learn How to write more efficient SAS code-either code that runs quicker, code that is easier to maintain, or both How to do more with the SAS components you already license How to take advantage of the newest features in SAS How to interface external applications with SAS software How to create graphs using SAS ODS Graphics Who This Book Is For SAS programmers wanting to improve their existing programming skills, and programming managers wanting to make better use of the SAS software they already license.
Classic Computer Science Problems in Python presents dozens of coding challenges, ranging from simple tasks like finding items in a list with a binary sort algorithm to clustering data using k-means. Classic Computer Science Problems in Python deepens your Python language skills by challenging you with time-tested scenarios, exercises, and algorithms. As you work through examples in search, clustering, graphs, and more, you´ll remember important things you´ve forgotten and discover classic solutions to your ´´new´´ problems Key Features · Breadth-first and depth-first search algorithms · Constraints satisfaction problems · Common techniques for graphs · Adversarial Search · Neural networks and genetic algorithms · Written for data engineers and scientists with experience using Python. For readers comfortable with the basics of Python About the technology Python is used everywhere for web applications, data munging, and powerful machine learning applications. Even problems that seem new or unique stand on the shoulders of classic algorithms, coding techniques, and engineering principles. Master these core skills, and you´ll be ready to use Python for AI, data-centric programming, deep learning, and the other challenges you´ll face as you grow your skill as a programmer. David Kopec teaches at Champlain College in Burlington, VT and is the author of Manning´s Classic Computer Science Problemsin Swift.
August 6, 2009 Author, Jon Kleinberg, was recently cited in the New York Times for his statistical analysis research in the Internet age. Algorithm Design introduces algorithms by looking at the real-world problems that motivate them. The book teaches students a range of design and analysis techniques for problems that arise in computing applications. The text encourages an understanding of the algorithm design process and an appreciation of the role of algorithms in the broader field of computer science. Features + Benefits Focus on problem analysis and design techniques. Discussion is grounded in concrete problems and examples rather than abstract presentation of principles, with representative problems woven throughout the text. Over 200 well crafted problems from companies such as Yahoo!® and Oracle®. Each problem has been class tested for usefulness and accuracy in the authors´ own undergraduate algorithms courses. Broad coverage of algorithms for dealing with NP-hard problems and the application of randomization, increasingly important topics in algorithms. Algorithm Design Jon Kleinberg and Eva Tardos Table of Contents 1 Introduction: Some Representative Problems 1.1 A First Problem: Stable Matching 1.2 Five Representative Problems Solved Exercises Excercises Notes and Further Reading 2 Basics of Algorithms Analysis 2.1 Computational Tractability 2.2 Asymptotic Order of Growth Notation 2.3 Implementing the Stable Matching Algorithm using Lists and Arrays 2.4 A Survey of Common Running Times 2.5 A More Complex Data Structure: Priority Queues Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading 3 Graphs 3.1 Basic Definitions and Applications 3.2 Graph Connectivity and Graph Traversal 3.3 Implementing Graph Traversal using Queues and Stacks 3.4 Testing Bipartiteness: An Application of Breadth-First Search 3.5 Connectivity in Directed Graphs 3.6 Directed Acyclic Graphs and Topological Ordering Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading 4 Divide and Conquer 4.1 A First Recurrence: The Mergesort Algorithm 4.2 Further Recurrence Relations 4.3 Counting Inversions 4.4 Finding the Closest Pair of Points 4.5 Integer Multiplication 4.6 Convolutions and The Fast Fourier Transform Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading 5 Greedy Algorithms 5.1 Interval Scheduling: The Greedy Algorithm Stays Ahead 5.2 Scheduling to Minimize Lateness: An Exchange Argument 5.3 Optimal Caching: A More Complex Exchange Argument 5.4 Shortest Paths in a Graph 5.5 The Minimum Spanning Tree Problem 5.6 Implementing Kruskal´s Algorithm: The Union-Find Data Structure 5.7 Clustering 5.8 Huffman Codes and the Problem of Data Compression *5.9 Minimum-Cost Arborescences: A Multi-Phase Greedy Algorithm Solved Exercises Excercises Notes and Further Reading 6 Dynamic Programming 6.1 Weighted Interval Scheduling: A Recursive Procedure 6.2 Weighted Interval Scheduling: Iterating over Sub-Problems 6.3 Segmented Least Squares: Multi-way Choices 6.4 Subset Sums and Knapsacks: Adding a Variable 6.5 RNA Secondary Structure: Dynamic Programming Over Intervals 6.6 Sequence Alignment 6.7 Sequence Alignment in Linear Space 6.8 Shortest Paths in a Graph 6.9 Shortest Paths and Distance Vector Protocols *6.10 Negative Cycles in a Graph Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading 7 Network Flow 7.1 The Maximum Flow Problem and the Ford-Fulkerson Algorithm 7.2 Maximum Flows and Minimum Cuts in a Network 7.3 Choosing Good Augmenting Paths *7.4 The Preflow-Push Maximum Flow Algorithm 7.5 A First Application: The Bipartite Matching Problem 7.6 Disjoint Paths in Directed and Undirected Graphs 7.7 Extensions to the Maximum Flow Problem 7.8 Survey Design 7.9 Airline Scheduling 7.10 Image Segmentation 7.11 Project Selection 7.12 Baseball Elimination *7.13 A Further Direction: Adding Costs to the Matching Problem Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading 8 NP and Computational Intractability 8.1 Polynomial-Time Reductions 8.2 Reductions via ´´Gadgets´´: The Satisfiability Problem 8.3 Efficient Certification and the Definition of NP 8.4 NP-Complete Problems 8.5 Sequencing Problems 8.6 Partitioning Problems 8.7 Graph Coloring 8.8 Numerical Problems 8.9 Co-NP and the Asymmetry of NP 8.10 A Partial Taxonomy of Hard Problems Solved Exercises Exercises Notes and Further Reading 9 PSPACE: A Class of Problems Beyond NP 9.1 PSPACE 9.2 Some Hard Problems in PSPACE 9.3 Solving Quantified Problems and Games in Polynomial Space 9.4 Solving the Planning
Algorithms are at the heart of every nontrivial computer application, and algorithmics is a modern and active area of computer science. Every computer scientist and every professional programmer should know about the basic algorithmic toolbox: structures that allow efficient organization and retrieval of data, frequently used algorithms, and basic techniques for modeling, understanding and solving algorithmic problems. This book is a concise introduction addressed to students and professionals familiar with programming and basic mathematical language. Individual chapters cover arrays and linked lists, hash tables and associative arrays, sorting and selection, priority queues, sorted sequences, graph representation, graph traversal, shortest paths, minimum spanning trees, and optimization. The algorithms are presented in a modern way, with explicitly formulated invariants, and comment on recent trends such as algorithm engineering, memory hierarchies, algorithm libraries and certifying algorithms. The authors use pictures, words and high-level pseudocode to explain the algorithms, and then they present more detail on efficient implementations using real programming languages like C++ and Java. The authors have extensive experience teaching these subjects to undergraduates and graduates, and they offer a clear presentation, with examples, pictures, informal explanations, exercises, and some linkage to the real world. Most chapters have the same basic structure: a motivation for the problem, comments on the most important applications, and then simple solutions presented as informally as possible and as formally as necessary. For the more advanced issues, this approach leads to a more mathematical treatment, including some theorems and proofs. Finally, each chapter concludes with a section on further findings, providing views on the state of research, generalizations and advanced solutions.
The DbContext API captures Entity Framework?s (EF) most commonly used features and tasks, simplifying development with EF. This concise book shows you how to use the API to perform set operations with the DbSet class, handle change tracking and resolve concurrency conflicts with the Change Tracker API, and validate changes to your data with the Validation API. With DbContext, you?ll be able to query and update data, whether you?re working with individual objects or graphs of objects and their related data. You?ll find numerous C# code samples to help you get started. All you need is experience with Visual Studio and database management basics. * Use EF?s query capabilities to retrieve data, and use LINQ to sort and filter data * Learn how to add new data, and change and delete existing data * Use the Change Tracker API to access information EF keeps about the state of entity instances * Control change tracking information of entities in disconnected scenarios, including NTier applications * Validate data changes before they?re sent to the database, and set up validation rules * Bypass EF?s query pipeline and interact directly with the database
Information theory and inference, taught together in this exciting textbook, lie at the heart of many important areas of modern technology - communication, signal processing, data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, computational neuroscience, bioinformatics and cryptography. The book introduces theory in tandem with applications. Information theory is taught alongside practical communication systems such as arithmetic coding for data compression and sparse-graph codes for error-correction. Inference techniques, including message-passing algorithms, Monte Carlo methods and variational approximations, are developed alongside applications to clustering, convolutional codes, independent component analysis, and neural networks. Uniquely, the book covers state-of-the-art error-correcting codes, including low-density-parity-check codes, turbo codes, and digital fountain codes - the twenty-first-century standards for satellite communications, disk drives, and data broadcast. Richly illustrated, filled with worked examples and over 400 exercises, some with detailed solutions, the book is ideal for self-learning, and for undergraduate or graduate courses. It also provides an unparalleled entry point for professionals in areas as diverse as computational biology, financial engineering and machine learning.