The purpose of this book is to introduce the reader to arithmetic topics, both ancient and modern, which have been at the center of interest in applications of number theory, particularly in cryptography. No background in algebra or number theory is assumed, and the book begins with a discussion of the basic number theory which is needed. The approach taken is algorithmic, emphasizing estimates of the efficiency of the techniques which arise from the theory. A special feature is the inclusion of recent application of the theory of elliptic curves. Extensive imaginative exercises and careful, revealing answers have been included in all of the chapters. The information society and the computer age have given rise to innumerable applications for cryptography besides the original motivation of secure communication. Thus, cryptography is a relatively fast-moving field. The new edition contains due to that fact substantial revisions and updated references.
There are many surprising connections between the theory of numbers, which is one of the oldest branches of mathematics, and computing and information theory. Number theory has important applications in computer organization and security, coding and cryptography, random number generation, hash functions, and graphics. Conversely, number theorists use computers in factoring large integers, determining primes, testing conjectures, and solving other problems. This book takes the reader from elementary number theory, via algorithmic number theory, to applied number theory in computer science. It introduces basic concepts, results, and methods, and discusses their applications in the design of hardware and software, cryptography, and security. It is aimed at undergraduates in computing and information technology, but will also be valuable to mathematics students interested in applications. In this 2nd edition full proofs of many theorems are added and some corrections are made.
This updated edition of Algorithms in a Nutshell describes a large number of existing algorithms for solving a variety of problems, and helps you select and implement the right algorithm for your needs-with just enough math to let you understand and analyze algorithm performance.
Three acknowledged experts in search engine optimization share guidelines and innovative techniques that will help you plan and execute a comprehensive SEO strategy. This third edition focuses on a number of tool updates and examines the changes brought about by Hummingbird, Google´s context-aware algorithm. The book is perfect for anyone interested in becoming an SEO practitioner, as well as people already working in the profession.
Fundamentally, computers just deal with numbers. They store letters and other characters by assigning a number for each one. There are hundreds of different encoding systems for mapping characters to numbers, but Unicode promises a single mapping. Unicode enables a single software product or website to be targeted across multiple platforms, languages and countries without re-engineering. It´s no wonder that industry giants like Apple, Hewlett-Packard, IBM andMicrosoft have all adopted Unicode. Containing everything you need to understand Unicode, this comprehensive reference from O´Reilly takes you on a detailed guide through the complex character world. For starters, it explains how to identify and classify characters - whether they´re common, uncommon, or exotic. It then shows you how to type them, utilize their properties, and process character data in a robust manner. The book is broken up into three distinct parts. The first few chapters provide you with a tutorial presentation of Unicode and character data. It gives you a firm grasp of the terminology you need to reference various components, including character sets, fonts and encodings, glyphs and character repertoires. The middle section offers more detailed information about using Unicode and other character codes. It explains the principles and methods of defining character codes, describes some of the widely used codes, and presents code conversion techniques. It also discusses properties of characters, collation and sorting, line breaking rules and Unicode encodings. The final four chapters cover more advanced material, such as programming to support Unicode. You simply can´t afford to be without the nuggets of valuable information detailed in Unicode Explained.
There are a growing number of users today who are turning to C for safety-critical development and many safety-critical systems are being written in C. However, there is no guidance available for the use of C in safety related work. This book provides developers and programmers with an essential critique of existing standards initiatives for safety critical development and an in-depth critique of the C language from a safety viewpoint. The book contains many new areas, specifically, intrinsic software quality which is expected to be of considerable importance in the near future and discusses how to build product quality into the software process using publicly available tools.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In computer science, self-modifying code is code that alters its own instructions while it is executing - usually to reduce the instruction path length and improve performance or simply to reduce otherwise repetitively similar code, thus simplifying maintenance. Self modification is an alternative to the method of ´flag setting´ and conditional program branching, used primarily to reduce the number of times a condition needs to be tested for. The method is frequently used for conditionally invoking test/debugging code without requiring additional overhead for every input/output cycle and also in just-in-time (JIT) compilers.
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The aim of this textbook is to provide undergraduate students with an introduction to the basic theoretical models of computability, and to develop some of the model´s rich and varied structure. Students who have already some experience with elementary discrete mathematics will find this a well-paced first course, and a number of supplementary chapters introduce more advanced concepts. The first part of the book is devoted to finite automata and their properties. Pushdown automata provide a broader class of models and enable the analysis of context-free languages. In the remaining chapters, Turing machines are introduced and the book culminates in discussions of effective computability, decidability, and Gödel´s incompleteness theorems. Plenty of exercises are provided, ranging from the easy to the challenging. As a result, this text will make an ideal first course for students of computer science.