Automatic language translation systems like those used by Google, have been revolutionized by recent advances in the methods used in statistical machine translation. This first textbook on the topic explains these innovations carefully and shows the reader, whether a student or a developer, how to build their own translation system.
The twenty-first century has seen a breathtaking expansion of statistical methodology, both in scope and in influence. ´Big data´, ´data science´, and ´machine learning´ have become familiar terms in the news, as statistical methods are brought to bear upon the enormous data sets of modern science and commerce. How did we get here? And where are we going? This book takes us on an exhilarating journey through the revolution in data analysis following the introduction of electronic computation in the 1950s. Beginning with classical inferential theories - Bayesian, frequentist, Fisherian - individual chapters take up a series of influential topics: survival analysis, logistic regression, empirical Bayes, the jackknife and bootstrap, random forests, neural networks, Markov chain Monte Carlo, inference after model selection, and dozens more. The distinctly modern approach integrates methodology and algorithms with statistical inference. The book ends with speculation on the future direction of statistics and data science.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Privacy in Statistical Databases, PSD 2018, held in Valencia, Spain, in September 2018 under the sponsorship of the UNESCO Chair in Data Privacy. The 23 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 42 submissions. The papers are organized into the following topics: tabular data protection; synthetic data; microdata and big data masking; record linkage; and spatial and mobility data. Chapter ´´SwapMob: Swapping Trajectories for Mobility Anonymization´´ is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
Aims and Scope This book is both an introductory textbook and a research monograph on modeling the statistical structure of natural images. In very simple terms, ´´natural images´´ are photographs of the typical environment where we live. In this book, their statistical structure is described using a number of statistical models whose parameters are estimated from image samples. Our main motivation for exploring natural image statistics is computational m- eling of biological visual systems. A theoretical framework which is gaining more and more support considers the properties of the visual system to be re?ections of the statistical structure of natural images because of evolutionary adaptation processes. Another motivation for natural image statistics research is in computer science and engineering, where it helps in development of better image processing and computer vision methods. While research on natural image statistics has been growing rapidly since the mid-1990s, no attempt has been made to cover the ?eld in a single book, providing a uni?ed view of the different models and approaches. This book attempts to do just that. Furthermore, our aim is to provide an accessible introduction to the ?eld for students in related disciplines.
The Truthful Art is an introduction to quantitative thinking and statistical and cartographical representation written specifically for journalists and designers. A follow-up to The Functional Art, it goes into the specifics of how to create functional charts, maps, and graphs.
Covering aspects from principles and limitations of statistical significance tests to topic set size design and power analysis, this book guides readers to statistically well-designed experiments. Although classical statistical significance tests are to some extent useful in information retrieval (IR) evaluation, they can harm research unless they are used appropriately with the right sample sizes and statistical power and unless the test results are reported properly. The first half of the book is mainly targeted at undergraduate students, and the second half is suitable for graduate students and researchers who regularly conduct laboratory experiments in IR, natural language processing, recommendations, and related fields. Chapters 1-5 review parametric significance tests for comparing system means, namely, t -tests and ANOVAs, and show how easily they can be conducted using Microsoft Excel or R. These chapters also discuss a few multiple comparison procedures for researchers who are interested in comparing every system pair, including a randomised version of Tukey´s Honestly Significant Difference test. The chapters then deal with known limitations of classical significance testing and provide practical guidelines for reporting research results regarding comparison of means. Chapters 6 and 7 discuss statistical power. Chapter 6 introduces topic set size design to enable test collection builders to determine an appropriate number of topics to create. Readers can easily use the author´s Excel tools for topic set size design based on the paired and two-sample t -tests, one-way ANOVA, and confidence intervals. Chapter 7 describes power-analysis-based methods for determining an appropriate sample size for a new experiment based on a similar experiment done in the past, detailing how to utilize the author´s R tools for power analysis and how to interpret the results. Case studies from IR for both Excel-based topic set size design and R-based power analysis are also provided.
If you know how to program, you have the skills to turn data into knowledge, using tools of probability and statistics. This concise introduction shows you how to perform statistical analysis computationally, rather than mathematically, with programs written in Python. By working with a single case study throughout this thoroughly revised book, you?ll learn the entire process of exploratory data analysis?from collecting data and generating statistics to identifying patterns and testing hypotheses. You?ll explore distributions, rules of probability, visualization, and many other tools and concepts. New chapters on regression, time series analysis, survival analysis, and analytic methods will enrich your discoveries. * Develop an understanding of probability and statistics by writing and testing code * Run experiments to test statistical behavior, such as generating samples from several distributions * Use simulations to understand concepts that are hard to grasp mathematically * Import data from most sources with Python, rather than rely on data that?s cleaned and formatted for statistics tools * Use statistical inference to answer questions about real-world data
If you know how to program with Python and also know a little about probability, you?re ready to tackle Bayesian statistics. With this book, you´ll learn how to solve statistical problems with Python code instead of mathematical notation, and use discrete probability distributions instead of continuous mathematics. Once you get the math out of the way, the Bayesian fundamentals will become clearer, and you?ll begin to apply these techniques to real-world problems. Bayesian statistical methods are becoming more common and more important, but not many resources are available to help beginners. Based on undergraduate classes taught by author Allen Downey, this book?s computational approach helps you get a solid start. * Use your existing programming skills to learn and understand Bayesian statistics * Work with problems involving estimation, prediction, decision analysis, evidence, and hypothesis testing * Get started with simple examples, using coins, M&Ms, Dungeons & Dragons dice, paintball, and hockey * Learn computational methods for solving real-world problems, such as interpreting SAT scores, simulating kidney tumors, and modeling the human microbiome.
This tutorial manual provides a comprehensive introduction to R, a software package for statistical computing and graphics. R supports a wide range of statistical techniques and is easily extensible via user-defined functions. One of R´s strengths is the ease with which publication-quality plots can be produced in a wide variety of formats. This is a printed edition of the tutorial documentation from the R distribution, with additional examples, notes and corrections. It is based on R version 2.9.0, released April 2009. R is free software, distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). It can be used with GNU/Linux, Unix and Microsoft Windows. All the money raised from the sale of this book supports the development of free software and documentation.
With more than 200 practical recipes, this book helps you perform data analysis with R quickly and efficiently. The R language provides everything you need to do statistical work, but its structure can be difficult to master. This collection of concise, task-oriented recipes makes you productive with R immediately, with solutions ranging from basic tasks to input and output, general statistics, graphics, and linear regression. Each recipe addresses a specific problem, with a discussion that explains the solution and offers insight into how it works. If you?re a beginner, R Cookbook will help get you started. If you?re an experienced data programmer, it will jog your memory and expand your horizons. You?ll get the job done faster and learn more about R in the process. * Create vectors, handle variables, and perform other basic functions * Input and output data * Tackle data structures such as matrices, lists, factors, and data frames * Work with probability, probability distributions, and random variables * Calculate statistics and confidence intervals, and perform statistical tests * Create a variety of graphic displays * Build statistical models with linear regressions and analysis of variance (ANOVA) * Explore advanced statistical techniques, such as finding clusters in your data ´´Wonderfully readable, R Cookbook serves not only as a solutions manual of sorts, but as a truly enjoyable way to explore the R language?one practical example at a time.´´?Jeffrey Ryan, software consultant and R package author